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A Level-Change Stackelberg Games Model for the Combined Traffic Assignment-Signal Control Equilibrium on Networks

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ABSTRACT: Combined traffic assignment–signal control equilibrium is usually integrated into a non-cooperative games model between the network authority and road users. Unlike a pure Wardropian equilibrium, in reality there may be both competition and cooperation between authority and users. Authority has always been regarded as the upper level in classical bi-level formulations, but this placement may increase the difficulty of obtaining a global optimal solution between authority and users. This paper proposes a level-change Stackelberg (LC Stackelberg) model that embraces both authority–user and user–authority formulations. The model is calibrated by a model predictive control (MPC) controller. A route-choice probability model is used to estimate flow burden on two parallel routes. Meanwhile, the difference of route-choice probability between the two parallel paths is regarded as the level-change threshold. A generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GJR-GARCH) model is used as a triggering function in the MPC controller to fulfill the level-change procedure. A modified wavelet neural network algorithm is used to seek the global optimal solution. Cournot, Stackelberg, and Monopoly, combined with a fixed-time control policy based on the Webster method, were chosen as benchmarks in a numerical example to test model validity. The results show that the LC Stackelberg model obtains the minimum total travel time compared with other models. Furthermore, the level-change between authority and users could also decrease route choice probability on one specific path, indicating the model’s potential application in urban networks.

Hang Yang, Zhongyu Wang, Yajie Zou, Bing Wu*, Xuesong Wang. A Level-Change Stackelberg Games Model for the Combined Traffic Assignment-Signal Control Equilibrium on Networks. Transportation Research Board 97th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2018. 1.7-11.

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